Spina Bifida is a fault in the spinal column in which one or more vertebrae (the bones which form the backbone) fail to form properly, leaving a gap or split, causing damage to the central nervous system. There are three main types of spina bifida Spina Bifida Occulta (hidden) This is a very mild and common form and very rarely causes disability. There is a slight deficiency in the formation of (usually) one of the vertebrae. It may have visible signs of a dimple or small hair growth on the back. However, many people are unaware that they have spina bifida occulta as they have no symptoms or signs. Many people have this condition. One survey suggested the proportion could be one in 10 of the population. The vast majority of these will have no symptoms or problems. Spina bifida occulta may be detected by X-ray when, for example, investigations of back injury are being made. In such cases, it can be extremely frightening to be labelled as having spina bifida but it must be emphasised that, for the vast majority, it is of no consequence whatsoever. Are there any complications ? Unfortunately, in some cases the cleft in the spine may cause problems. Sometimes the spinal cord may become tethered - that is, caught against the vertebrae. With growth, tension can cause inefficient functioning, affecting bladder control and mobility. Spina Bifida Cystica (cyst-like) The visible signs are a sac or cyst, rather like a large blister on the back, covered by a thin layer of skin. There are two forms Meningocele In this form, the sac contains tissues which cover the spinal cord (meninges) and cerebro-spinal fluid. This fluid bathes and protects the brain and spinal cord. The nerves are not usually badly damaged and are able to function, therefore there is often little disability present. This is the least common form. Myelomeningocele (meningomyelocele) Myelomeningocele is the most serious and more common of the two forms of cystic spina bifida. Here the cyst not only contains tissue and cerebro-spinal fluid but also nerves and part of the spinal cord. The spinal cord is damaged or not properly developed. As a result, there is always some paralysis and loss of sensation below the damaged region. The amount of disability depends very much on where the spina bifida is and the amount of nerve damage involved. Many people with this condition have bowel and bladder problems because of damage to the nerves going to the bowel or bladder from the bottom end of the spinal cord. Encephalocele This is a sac which is formed when the bones of the skull fail to develop. It may contain cerebrospinal fluid only, however, part of the brain may also be present in the sac, resulting in brain damage. Anencephaly This is where the brain does not develop properly or is absent, and the baby is either still born or dies shortly after birth. Hydrocephalus Most babies born with spina bifida also have hydrocephalus (from the Greek hydro = water, cephalie = brain). This is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid which arises from an imbalance in the production and drainage of that fluid. What Causes Spina Bifida? At present, the cause is unknown, although research continues. The exact reasons why the tube develops incorrectly are not yet known but it is probably connected with both genetic and environmental factors. Spina bifida is a defect which is present at birth. Spina bifida is only partially hereditary. However once there has been as affected pregnancy, there is an increased risk of further spina bifida pregnancies. The risk of an adult with spina bifida having a child with a similar condition is approximately 3% or 1 in 35.
Why so many pyramids
written by Kumar , December 26, 2007
U used 10,000 pyramids in your place. It costs a lot to have so many. Even Rs. 15 per would mean Rs. 15,00,000.
How expensive is it for a flat of 2,000 sq.ft
Response from Premal Betai: You may require to contribute anywhere between Rs.2000 to Rs.5000 for a flat of 2000 square feet.