Friday, 13 July 2007
Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a condition affecting children and adults that is characterized by problems with attention, impulsvity, and overactivity. It affects more between 4-6 percent of schoolage children, and between 2-4 percent of adults. Attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is the current diagnostic label for a condition that has been recognized and studied for over a century. Over the years, it has been known by several other names inlcuding "brain damaged syndrome," "minimal brain dysfunction (MBD)," "hyperkinetic impulsive disorder," and "attention deficit disorder." Occasionally, we may all have difficulty sitting still, paying attention or controlling impulsive behavior. For some people, the problem is so pervasive and persistent that it interferes with their daily life, including home, academic, social, and work settings. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, attention, and in some cases, hyperactivity. AD/HD is a neurobiological disorder that affects three-to-five percent of school-age children. Until recent years, it was believed that children outgrew AD/HD in adolescence. Perhaps, this was because hyperactivity often diminishes during the teen years. However, it is now known that many symptoms continue into adulthood. In fact, current research reflects rates of roughly two to four percent among adults. Although individuals with this disorder can be very successful in life, without identification and proper treatment, AD/HD may have serious consequences, including school failure, depression, problems with relationships, conduct disorder, substance abuse, and job failure. Early identification and treatment are extremely important. Medical science first documented children exhibiting inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity in 1902. Since that time, the disorder has been given numerous names, including Minimal Brain Dysfunction, Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood, and Attention-Deficit Disorder With or Without Hyperactivity. With the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) classification system, the disorder has been renamed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The current name reflects the importance of the inattention characteristics of the disorder as well as hyperactivity and impulsivity. The Symptoms Typically, AD/HD symptoms arise in early childhood, unless associated with some type of brain injury later in life. Some symptoms persist into adulthood and may pose life-long challenges. Although the official diagnostic criteria state that the onset of symptoms must occur before age seven, leading researchers in the field of AD/HD argue that criterion should be broadened to include onset anytime during childhood. Criteria for the three primary subtypes are summarized as follows: AD/HD predominately inattentive type: (AD/HD-I)5 Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes. Has difficulty sustaining attention. Does not appear to listen. Struggles to follow through on instructions. Has difficulty with organization. Avoids or dislikes tasks requiring sustained mental effort. Loses things. Is easily distracted. Is forgetful in daily activities. AD/HD predominately hyperactive-impulsive type: (AD/HD-HI)5 Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in chair. Has difficulty remaining seated. Runs about or climbs excessively. Difficulty engaging in activities quietly. Acts as if driven by a motor. Talks excessively. Blurts out answers before questions have been completed. Difficulty waiting or taking turns. Interrupts or intrudes upon others. AD/HD combined type: (AD/HD-C)5 Individual meets both sets of inattention and hyperactive/impulsive criteria. Youngsters with AD/HD often experience a two- to four-year developmental delay that makes them seem less mature and responsible than their peers. In addition, AD/HD frequently co-occurs with other conditions, such as depression, anxiety, or learning disabilities. Teens with AD/HD present a special challenge. During these years, academic and organizational demands increase. In addition, these impulsive youngsters are facing typical adolescent issues: discovering their identity, establishing independence, dealing with peer pressure, exposure to illegal drugs, emerging sexuality, and the challenges of teen driving. Recently, deficits in executive function have emerged as key factors impacting academic and career success. Simply stated, executive function refers to the “variety of functions within the brain that activate, organize, integrate and manager other functions.” Critical concerns include deficits in working memory and the ability to plan for the future. The Diagnosis Many adults with AD/HD were never properly diagnosed as children. As a result, they grew up struggling with a disability they did not even know they had. Others were diagnosed as “hyperkinetic” or “hyperactive” and were told their symptoms would disappear in adolescence. Consequently, many developed other problems that masked the underlying AD/HD. Adults with AD/HD may be easily distracted, have difficulty sustaining attention and concentrating, are often impulsive and impatient, may have mood swings and short tempers, may be disorganized and have difficulty planning ahead. They may also feel fidgety and restless internally. In addition, adults may also experience career difficulties. They may lose jobs due to poor job performance, attention and organizational problems, or interpersonal relationships. As a result, some adults experience periods of sadness or depression. On the other hand, adults who are diagnosed and treated adequately can thrive professionally. This is especially true once individuals find jobs that rely on their strengths rather than their deficits. The Evaluation There is no single test which proves or disproves AD/HD. Through Pendulum Dowsing, we can accurately diagnose whether you have AD/HD or not. Click here for your personal check up on AD/HD. The Causes According to a June 1997 AMA study, “AD/HD is one of the best researched disorders in medicine, and the overall data on its validity are far more compelling than that for most mental disorders and even for many medical conditions.” Nonetheless, the exact causes of AD/HD remain illusive. Currently, most research suggests a neurobiological basis. Since AD/HD runs in families, inheritance appears to be an important factor.9 Even though a diagnostic test for AD/HD does not exist, the 1998 National Institute of Health Consensus Statement concludes, “there is evidence supporting the validity of the disorder.”10 Solution for AD/HD There may be serious consequences for persons with AD/HD who do not receive treatment or receive inadequate treatment. These consequences may include low self-esteem, social and academic failure, career underachievement and a possible increase in the risk of later antisocial and criminal behavior. Treatment plans should be tailored to meet the specific needs of each individual and family.
Why so many pyramids
written by Kumar , December 26, 2007
U used 10,000 pyramids in your place. It costs a lot to have so many. Even Rs. 15 per would mean Rs. 15,00,000.
How expensive is it for a flat of 2,000 sq.ft
Response from Premal Betai: You may require to contribute anywhere between Rs.2000 to Rs.5000 for a flat of 2000 square feet.